Alparslan Buyuk Selcuklu Episode 11 With English Subtitle
Biography of Sultan Alp Arsalan
(Persian: بیگ آلپ ارسلان ālp arslān; Arabic: الب ارسلان بیگ alb arslān),
Real Name: Muhammad Beg Bin Dawood Chagri. He was the third sultan of the Seljuk dynasty and the great-grandson of the Seljuk. From his time the Seljuk dynasty was established as a dynasty. He was awarded the title of Alp Arsalan for his military prowess, heroism and combat prowess.
It means “hero lion” in Turkish and Turkmen languages.
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After the death of his father Chagri Beg (1059 AD) he became the ruler of Khorasan. After the death of his uncle Tughril Beg, Alp Arsalan’s brother Sulaiman succeeded Tughril Beg. This legacy was fought between Arsalan and another uncle, Kutalmish. Alp Arsalan defeated Kutalmish and became the commander-in-chief of the Seljuks on 26 April 1064. He became the sultan of the great Seljuk dynasty. And emerged as the absolute emperor of Persia from Amu Darya to Tigris.
Alp Arsalan conferred the title of Nizamul Mulk (State Organizer) on a scholar named Khwaja Hasan and appointed Azam as his vizier. Alp Arsalan ruled the state in the company of his vizier Nizamul Mulk. Nizamul Mulk is one of the most important figures in Muslim history. Alp Arsalan declared his son Malik Shah as his successor. His army crossed the Euphrates and attacked the city, capturing Caesarea Mazaka, the capital of Cappadocia. The Sultan himself led the forces. He then proceeded to Armenia and Georgia. The new sultan, Alp Arsalan, in the second year of his reign, conquered Roman-occupied Georgia and Armenia in 1074 and extended the borders of his kingdom.
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The clashes between the Byzantines and the Muslims during the Tughril period culminated in Alp Arsalan. Tughril declared war on the Byzantines and expelled them from Capasodia and Phrygia. During his journey to Syria in 106, Alp Arsalan invaded the Byzantine Empire. Emperor 4th Romanos Diogenes meets the invaders in Cilicia. Three deadly battles took place between these two forces. The first two were run by the emperors themselves and the third by Manuel Communeus.
By 1060, the Seljuks were defeated and returned to the shores of the Euphrates. In 1061, Romanos set out with an army of approximately 200,000 troops to destroy the Muslim kingdom of Baghdad and subdue the whole of West Asia. His army included Kuman Turks, Franks and Normans. This force, led by Ursel da Beiul, advanced on Armenia. Alp Arsalan marched against them with only 40,000 Mujahideen in the name of Allah, and in 1061 Alp Arsalan and Romanos clashed on the battlefield of Manjikard, on the north bank of the Murat River in Von Lake.
In Algiers, Sultan Alp Arsalan proposed a treaty, but Emperor Romanos rejected it. As a result, a fight broke out between the two forces. A fierce clash ensued between the two groups. This battle is known in history as the Battle of Manzikart. The Kuman soldiers of the Byzantine army, who were originally mercenaries, immediately defected and joined the Seljuk Turks. Frank and Norman refrained from participating in the war because of the Kuman defection.
As a result, the Byzantines were completely defeated in the war. And the Roman army was miserably defeated and the emperor Romans was taken prisoner. The emperor agreed to marry the daughters of Alp Arsalan to his daughters and to pay a ransom of 1 million and 360,000 gold coins as annual taxes to the caliph for the release of his captives, and promised to release all Muslim prisoners. This victory of Alp Arsalan further benefited the Seljuk Turks and Sunni Muslims in Asia.
However, the Byzantine Empire survived until the next four centuries, and the Crusaders suffered casualties. The Battle of Manzikart helped the Turks advance into Anatolia. According to most historians, including Edward Gibbon, Manzikart’s defeat marked the beginning of the fall of the Eastern Roman Empire. The Anatolian right from the Byzantines was seen as one of the reasons for the Crusades.
The importance of Alp Arsalan
It is narrated that after the battle of Manzikart, when the 4th Romanos emperor Romanos was brought before Alp Arsalan in captivity. Alp Arsalan treated him kindly. The following conversation is said to have taken place between them:
Alp Arsalan: What would you do if I was brought before you as a prisoner?
Romanos: Maybe I would kill you or arrange a street show in Constantinople.
Alp Arsalan: My punishment is even more severe. I forgive you and you are free.
The historian Ibn al-Asir described Alp Arsalan as a “generous, generous, just and wise ruler, pious in life, pious and devout, merciful, generous, friend of the poor, averse to reprehensible activity and always brave and courageous.” In a word, his morale, religious strength and arm strength were equal. He was also known as a pragmatist and just ruler. He moved the capital from Marv to Isfahan. He had friendly relations with the weak Abbasid caliph.
Alp Arsalan’s authority was limited to the military. Other affairs of the state were controlled by his vizier Nizamul Mulk. Nizamul Mulk established various administrative organizations. The established military landscaping was able to draw the nomadic Turks to the resources of the Persians, Turks and other cultures of the Seljuk region and enable Alp Arsalan to support a large force. Alp Arsalan was the son of his nephew Sulaiman ibn Qutalmish, one of Arsalan’s most powerful rivals.
He was appointed governor of the newly occupied state of Asia Minor and governor of the northwestern province, and was tasked with completing the conquest of Anatolia. The reason for his appointment is as follows from the statement of Ibn al-Asir, who was present at the battle between Alp Arsalan and Kutalmish. He writes that Alp Arsalan mourned the death of Kutalmish and was deeply saddened by the loss of a relative. Solomon and his successors are known as the Seljuks of Rome.
After the Battle of Manzikart, Alp Arsalan occupied most of West Asia. He then made preparations to occupy the territory of his ancestors, Turkistan. He marched towards the Amu Darya with a strong army. There is a need to capture some forts before crossing the river. One of them, Yusuf al-Harezimi, resisted for several days.
Eventually, he was forced to surrender and was brought before the Sultan. The Sultan executed him. Yusuf immediately pulled out his knife and attacked the Sultan. Four days later, in 1072, Arsalan died. Some historians say he died instantly. Marve is buried next to his father Chegri Beg. His tombstone reads: “Those who have seen the splendour of Sultan Alp Arsalan Beg, look, he is now lying under the black ground.